The ancient Chinese are credited with having invented many things that we use today. Since we're dealing with Antiquity here (roughly the Shang to the Chin [c.1600 B.C. - A.D. 265]), rather than the period from the beginning of time through the Middle Ages, I can't simply use a list of the Four Great Chinese Inventions. So, here is my list of the most important inventions from ancient China in terms of western use today. Arguably, gunpowder even in its ancient form, could be on top, but my choice is one that millions of us drink every day, the most popular drink in the world, and, while initially people were suspicious of its harmful effects, a lot healthier than the other candidate for top billing.
Tea has been so important in China that even the story of silk includes a probably anachronistic cup of it. Legend says silk was discovered when a cocoon fell from a mulberry bush into a cup of imperial tea. This is similar to the legend of the discovery of tea where an emperor (Shen Nung (2737 B.C.)) drank a cup of water into which leaves from an overhanging Camellia bush had fallen.
Tea, no matter what country it comes from, is from the Camellia sinensis plant. It seems to have been a new beverage in the third century A.D., a time when it was still regarded with suspicion, much as the tomato was when it was first brought to Europe.
Today we refer to beverages as tea even though there is no real tea in them. (Purists call them tisanes.) In the early period, there was confusion, too, and the Chinese for tea was sometimes used to refer to other plants, according to Bodde.
2. GunpowderThe principle behind gunpowder was discovered by the Chinese in perhaps the first century A.D., during the Han Dynasty. It wasn't used in guns at the time, but created explosions at festivals. They mixed together saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal dust, which they put into bamboo tubes, and threw into fires -- until they found a way to propel the matter on its own as a rocket, according to The History of Early Fireworks - Gunpowder from the Guide to Inventors at About.com.
4. Silk Fabric
The Chinese learned to cultivate the silk worm, reel out its silken thread, and create silk fabric. Not only was the silken fabric useful in heat or cold as clothing, but, as a highly sought-after luxury item, it led to commerce with other peoples and the spread of culture all the way to and from the Roman Empire.
The story of silk comes from legend, but the period in which it was created is what is considered the first historical dynasty in China, the Shang.
Paper was another Han invention. Paper could be made from a sludge made from fabrics, like hemp, or rice. Ts'ai-Lun is credited with the invention, although it is thought to have been created earlier. Ts'ai-Lun gets the credit because he showed it to the Chinese emperor c. A.D. 105. Should paper come before silk? Perhaps, but with the decline in newspapers and print books, as well as the use of email for personal communication, it doesn't seem quite so important as it did, say 20 years ago.
"Points East and West: Acupuncture and Comparative Philosophy of Science
Philosophy of Science
Vol. 63, Supplement. Proceedings of the 1996 Biennial Meetings of the Philosophy of Science Association. Part I: Contributed Papers (Sep., 1996), pp. S107-S115.