Figures of speech can create vivid images in readers' minds when they read about characters in your works of fiction. By "figures of speech," however, I don't mean simply the contemporary techniques of metaphor or hyperbole. I refer, instead, to the classical figures of etymology, orthography, syntax, and rhetoric, which often have applications in both everyday and elegant language.
I shared a list of rhetorical terms some time ago, but here I present specific devices (including some of those I listed before) for suggesting character traits or implying dialect by altering the spelling or form of words or the construction of sentences.
These techniques help convey a character's voice and/or personality — whether they're highbrow or lowbrow, pretentious or unaffected, eloquent or inarticulate:
1. Apheresis: elision at the head of a word, such as in 'gainst, (against), often to alter poetic meter.
2. Apocope, or apocopation: elision at the tail of a word, such as ad (advertisement), for colloquial convenience, or th' (the), to indicate dialect.
3. Archaisms: old-fashioned phrasing for nostalgic or literary effect, such as "ye old antique shoppe"-type constructions, or obsolete words such as dight (adorn) or yclept (named).
4. Dissimulation: mispronunciation of a word that involves suppressing one of two instances of the r sound, as in the erroneous Febuary (February).
5. Ellipsis: omission of implied words, whether mundane, as in "He was the only person (who) I saw," or poetic, as in "Wrongs are engraved on marble; benefits (are engraved) on sand."
6. Enallage: substitution for poetic effect of a correct form of a word with an incorrect form, as in "Sure some disaster has befell."
7. Epenthesis: insertion of a consonant (called excrescence) or vowel (known as anaptyxis) into the middle of a world, as in drawring (drawing), often to illustrate a speaker's substandard dialect.
8. Hyperbaton: transposition of words, as in "Happy is he who is simple."
9. Mimesis: malapropisms and mispronunciations for humorous effect, as "very close veins" instead of "varicose veins."
10. Paragoge: attachment of a superfluous suffix to a root word to indicate dialect, as in withouten (without), or to emphasize a stereotypical foreign accent, as in an Italian person's supposed inclination to end all English words with a vowel sound in a sentence like "He's a very-a rich-a man."
11. Pleonasm: redundancy for literary effect, as in "He that has ears to hear, let him hear."
12. Prosthesis: attachment of a superfluous prefix to a root word, as in "She were aborn before your time."
13. Syneresis: folding of two syllables into one, as in everyday contraction like I'll ("I will") or archaic forms like "Seest thou?" ("Do you see?").
14. Syncope: elision of letters within a word, as in e'en (even), to affect meter in poetry or otherwise allude to a classical frame of mind.
15. Timesis: insertion of a word between the elements of an open or closed compound, whether in contemporary slang (abso-frickin'-lutely) or classical usage ("So new a fashioned robe.")
Thanks to Mark Nichol / Daily Writing Tips