Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Capitalizing On The Benefits Of Mobile-Based Learning

Today's Mobile-Learning Tools Are Designed For Workers To Share, Create And Organize Their Knowledge.

Most HR professionals are aware of the benefits of mobile-based training programs, yet more than half of businesses recently surveyed still use paper-based training materials even though they believe such tools are ineffective.

The survey was conducted by Inkling, a digital learning platform for frontline employees. Although 500 retail and restaurant organizations participated, their responses still reflect marketplaces outside those industries, says Jeff Carr, CEO of Inkling.

“Paper-based training is still somewhat common despite the demand and availability of mobile [training],” he says. “Customer-facing employees don’t receive enough ongoing training and lack direct access to reference materials and training guides. That’s not a shock, but in 2019, you’d think a store, restaurant or office would have figured these things out and it [mobile learning] would be a little bit more commonplace.”

Based on survey responses, outdated training and communications tools are hindering effectiveness for customer-facing staff. Ninety percent of respondents agree that it would be beneficial to switch from outdated or inefficient paper-based training to online or mobile-based training, while 86 percent of executives and customer-facing staff agree that communications need to improve in both directions. While most respondents (97 percent) have or are beginning to introduce mobile-based training apps or software, 86 percent say mobile-based training has improved frontline staff’s ability to meet customer expectations. But usage of mobile devices still has a long way to go. Fifty-six percent believe that mobile devices are not being maximized and employees still lack the right tools to quickly address customer queries.

According to Inkling’s research, employees dislike corporate learning management systems because they typically are not interactive or streamlined, Carr says, adding that workers prefer micro learning to traditional workshops because it enables them to access small bites of information on mobile devices while completing tasks or projects.

“As we move toward a 3.5 percent unemployment rate in the U.S.,” he says, “there’s a need for a better employee experience in the learning space, everything from real-time feedback and check-ins to in-the-moment, in-the-flow, which are huge trends.”

Versatility And Interactivity

Transitioning to mobile-based learning poses several HR challenges concerning when this type of learning is appropriate, identifying specific content to deliver and to whom, assessing how much mobile learning should be offered, and determining where and how that content is delivered, says Ron Zamir, CEO at AllenComm, a global professional-services firm that focuses on training.

Zamir says he believes mobile-based learning will accelerate this year because training products can now be displayed on practically any device with a screen.

“With simple laser technology, you’ll have the ability to project stuff on any flat surface,” Zamir says. “You can project training content, product descriptions and value propositions on mobile devices, computers, walls in a mall or screens in gas stations or elevators.”

Companies will also use mobile devices as bookends for onboarding. Before orientation, he says, new hires can receive information on their cell phone, for example, about the organization’s history and then while on the job, access additional mobile-based content that reinforces concepts critical to their job success, such as the company’s customer service approach.

In the near future, he says he expects mobile-based learning to evolve beyond sending content to mobile devices.

“Mobile learning will be less content heavy and more social-interaction heavy,” says Zamir. “It will be more about interactivity and sharing information between employees versus devices that receive content. That’s where the phone will actually shine.”

Still, Zamir remains skeptical of high-tech learning’s current reach, saying it’s going to take many years before people “don’t want to hold a book in their hands.”

Until then, he says, HR should avoid overloading itself with technologies that address a narrow training need.

“Make sure that any technology investment you make to create or display content can play nice with all the different modalities you’re trying to use as part of your mix in your training department,” Zamir says.

Focus On Content

Historically, the training market has been slow to adopt new approaches or formats, says Ibrahim Jabary, CEO at Gamelearn, which develops game-based training and communication software for mobile devices.

Not everyone in the training market fully understands the benefits of video games, Jabary says. Looking ahead, he says, most mobile-based learning or training formats will be influenced by gamification and, as mobile devices and networks become faster, training suppliers will build content featuring experiential learning combined with gamification and social learning.

At that point, the most important HR challenge will be supply not meeting demand. “The lack of quality content is going to be a huge obstacle,” Jabary says, explaining that some clients are currently frustrated and asking for products that haven’t been developed yet.

Meanwhile, he says employees have grown bored with traditional-learning formats.

“Everyone needs to think about how to make content attractive again,” Jabary says. “If you find a way to make people have fun while sharing, creating or organizing their knowledge, that would become a huge tool.”

About the Auther :- Carol Patton is a contributing editor for HRE who also writes HR articles and columns for business and education magazines.

Thanks to Carol Patton / HR Executive
http://hrexecutive.com/capitalizing-on-the-benefits-of-mobile-based-learning/

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Saturday, April 13, 2019

Fiat Automobiles ... Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino

Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (UK: , US: ; originally FIAT, Italian: Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino, lit. 'Italian Automobiles Factory, Turin') is an Italian automobile manufacturer, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (previously Fiat S.p.A.). Fiat Automobiles was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, and traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced.

Fiat Automobiles is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy. During its more than century-long history, it remained the largest automobile manufacturer in Europe and the third in the world after General Motors and Ford for over twenty years, until the car industry crisis in the late 1980s. In 2013, Fiat S.p.A. was the second largest European automaker by volumes produced and the seventh in the world, while currently FCA is the world's eighth largest auto maker.

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In 1970, Fiat Automobiles employed more than 100,000 in Italy when its production reached the highest number, 1.4 million cars, in that country. As of 2002, it built more than 1 million vehicles at six plants in Italy and the country accounted for more than a third of the company's revenue. Fiat has also manufactured railway engines, military vehicles, farm tractors, aircraft, and weapons such as the Fiat–Revelli Modello 1914.

Fiat-brand cars are built in several locations around the world. Outside Italy, the largest country of production is Brazil, where the Fiat brand is the market leader. The group also has factories in Argentina, Poland and Mexico (where Fiat-brand vehicles are manufactured at plants owned and operated by FCA US for export to the United States, Brazil, Italy and other markets) and a long history of licensing manufacture of its products in other countries.

Fiat Automobiles has received many international awards for its vehicles, including nine European Car of the Year awards, the most of any other manufacturer, and it ranked many times as the lowest level of CO2 emissions by vehicles sold in Europe.

History

On 11 July 1899, Giovanni Agnelli was part of the group of founding members of FIAT, Fabbrica Italiana di Automobili Torino. The first Fiat plant opened in 1900 with 35 staff making 24 cars. Known from the beginning for the talent and creativity of its engineering staff, by 1903 Fiat made a small profit and produced 135 cars; this grew to 1,149 cars by 1906. The company then went public selling shares via the Milan stock exchange.

Agnelli led the company until his death in 1945, while Vittorio Valletta administered the firm's daily activities. Its first car, the 3 ½ CV (of which only 24 copies were built, all bodied by Alessio of Turin) strongly resembled contemporary Benz, and had a 697 cc (42.5 cu in) boxer twin engine. In 1903, Fiat produced its first truck. In 1908, the first Fiat was exported to the US. That same year, the first Fiat aircraft engine was produced. Also around the same time, Fiat taxis became popular in Europe.

By 1910, Fiat was the largest automotive company in Italy. That same year, a new plant was built in Poughkeepsie, NY, by the newly founded American F.I.A.T. Automobile Company. Owning a Fiat at that time was a sign of distinction. The cost of a Fiat in the US was initially $4,000 and rose up to $6,400 in 1918, compared to $825 for a Ford Model T in 1908, and $525 in 1918, respectively. During World War I, Fiat had to devote all of its factories to supplying the Allies with aircraft, engines, machine guns, trucks, and ambulances. Upon the entry of the US into the war in 1917, the factory was shut down as US regulations became too burdensome. After the war, Fiat introduced its first tractor, the 702. By the early 1920s, Fiat had a market share in Italy of 80%.

In 1921, workers seized Fiat's plants and hoisted the red flag of communism over them. Agnelli responded by quitting the company. However, the Italian Socialist Party and its ally organization, the Italian General Confederation of Labour, in an effort to effect a compromise with the centrist parties ordered the occupation ended. In 1922, Fiat began to build the famous Lingotto car factory—then the largest in Europe—which opened in 1923. It was the first Fiat factory to use assembly lines; by 1925, Fiat controlled 87% of the Italian car market. In 1928, with the 509, Fiat included insurance in the purchase price.

Fiat made military machinery and vehicles during World War II for the Army and Regia Aeronautica and later for the Germans. Fiat made obsolete fighter aircraft like the biplane CR.42, which was one of the most common Italian aircraft, along with Savoia-Marchettis, as well as light tanks (obsolete compared to their German and Soviet counterparts) and armoured vehicles. The best Fiat aircraft was the G.55 fighter, which arrived too late and in too limited numbers. In 1945, the year Benito Mussolini was overthrown, the National Liberation Committee removed the Agnelli family from leadership roles in Fiat because of its ties to Mussolini's government. They were not returned until 1963, when Giovanni's grandson, Gianni, took over as general manager until 1966, as chairman until 1996.

In 1970, Fiat employed more than 100,000 in Italy when its production reached the highest number, 1.4 million cars, in that country. As of 2002, Fiat built more than 1 million vehicles at six plants in Italy and the country accounted for more than a third of the company's revenue.

Towards the end of 1976 it was announced that the Libyan government was to take a shareholding in the company in return for a capital injection Other aspects of the Libyan agreement included the construction of a truck and bus plant at Tripoli. Chairman Agnelli candidly described the deal as "a classic petro-money recycling operation which will strengthen the Italian reserves, provide Fiat with fresh capital and give the group greater tranquility in which to carry out its investment programmes".

On 29 January 2014, it was announced that Fiat S.p.A. (the former owner of Fiat Group) was to be merged into a new Netherlands-based holding company Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV (FCA), took place before the end of 2014. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles became the new owner of Fiat Group. On 1 August 2014, Fiat S.p.A. received necessary shareholder approval to proceed with the merger, which became effective 12 October 2014.

Presence

Europe

Fiat's main market is Europe, mainly focused in Italy. Historically successful in citycars and supermini sector, currently Fiat has a range of models focused on those two segments (in 2011, those accounted for the 84% of its sales). Fiat does not currently offer any large family car, nor an executive car - these market segments have, to some extent been covered by the Lancia and Alfa Romeo brands, which Fiat also owns.

Fiat's share of the European market shrank from 9.4 per cent in 2000 to 5.8 per cent in the summer of 2004. At this point Sergio Marchionne was appointed as Fiat's chief executive. By March 2009 their market share had expanded to 9.1 per cent.

Fiat built their five-story Lingotto plant in 1915 through 1918, at the time it was Europe's largest car manufacturing plant. Later the Mirafiori plant was built, also in Turin. To prepare for production of the all-new Fiat 128, Fiat opened their Rivalta plant in October 1968. Until the 128 entered production, the plant was used to build sports versions of the 850 and 124 as well as parts for the Fiat Dino.

Fiat's 2018 range of passenger car engines comprised eleven units, eight petrols and three diesels. Their current range of models is the following:

Fiat sales in 2011 were up to 676,704 (less 17.3% versus the previous year):

Light commercial vehicles are sold in Europe under the brand Fiat Professional.

Fiat was importing cars to the UK market by the outbreak of World War II in 1939 (with the two countries on opposite sides), but its market share increased rapidly during the 1970s, with the 127 supermini and 128 range of small family cars being the biggest sellers, selling largely on practicality and efficiency. Its market share increased further during the 1980s with the Fiat Uno (imported to the UK from June 1983) being the company's best seller in the UK, and its share fell sharply in the early 1990s before the arrival of the Punto in March 1994 rejuvenated the company's UK fortunes.

The second generation Punto was a strong seller in the UK after its October 1999 launch, but the new modern day Fiat 500 (launched there in January 2008) has accounted for most of the company's UK sales in more recent years. The original Fiat 500 had been one of the few direct competitors for the iconic Mini during its 1960s heyday.

South America

Fiat has invested for a long time in South America, mainly in Brazil (where has been the market leader for many years) and in Argentina. They built their first Brazilian car plant in the Greater Belo Horizonte city of Betim in 1973, after having begun by building tractors there.

The Brazilian range is similar to European one, with the addition of a special family which derives from a common platform (called "Project 178"): Palio Weekend, Palio Adventure, Strada.

Recently a range of new models developed in Brazil has been launched: Uno, Palio, Grand Siena, Fiorino.

Other European models are currently imported to Brazil: Fiat 500.

Fiat sells in Brazil under the Fiat brand, European Fiat Professional light commercial vehicles as:

North America

Fiat has a long history in the United States. In 1908, the Fiat Automobile Co. was established in the country and a plant in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., began producing Fiats a year later, like the Fiat 60 HP and the Fiat 16-20 HP. These luxury cars were produced long before Chrysler Corp. was formed in 1925 from older manufacturers that were acquired by Walter P. Chrysler, the founder. The New Jersey factory was closed when the U.S. entered World War I in 1917.

Fiat returned to North America in the 1950s, selling the original 500, Fiat 600 Multipla, Fiat 1100, Fiat 1200, and the Fiat 1300. Models produced in those years include the Fiat 124 Sport Spider and the Fiat X1/9. Partly as a result, Fiat sales in the US fell from a high of 100,511 cars in 1975 to 14,113 in 1982. In 1983, Fiat left the United States car market with a reputation for poor quality cars in North America, mostly rust and poor reliability.

In January 2009, the Fiat Group acquired a 20% stake in US automaker Chrysler LLC. The deal saw the return of the Fiat brand to North America after a 25-year absence. The first Fiat-branded model to appear was the internationally popular Fiat 500 city car. The Fiat 500 model is built at Chrysler's assembly plant in Toluca, Mexico, which currently makes also the Dodge Journey and Fiat Freemont crossovers. Fiat is also selling their commercial vehicles Fiat Ducato and Fiat Doblò in North America, rebranded as Ram ProMaster and Ram ProMaster City respectively.

Africa

Fiat passenger cars began assembly in South Africa in 1950, and full production in their Rosslyn plant commenced in 1966. Sales reached a peak market share of about five percent around 1970 but then dropped precipitously. A new 128-based half-ton pickup truck helped turn the situation around. It also assembled in Egypt through El-Nasr Automotive Manufacturing Company which assembled FIAT brands 125-127-128

Asia

Fiat's presence in Chinese market is limited compared to its European, Japanese, Korean and American rivals. At the beginning of 2012, Fiat was only importing Fiat Bravo and Fiat 500 model. However, in 2012 Fiat and GAC opened a joint venture plant to produce the first Fiat vehicle specifically developed for Chinese market ever: the Fiat Viaggio, a compact car derived by another model of Fiat SpA group, the Dodge Dart (in turn derived by another Fiat Group car, the Alfa Romeo Giulietta).

Fiat currently offers to Japanese consumers the 500 in both coupe and convertible bodystyles, and the Panda. Both vehicles are in compliance with Japanese Government dimension regulations affording the Japanese public to purchase a non-Japanese vehicle without having to pay an annual tax for driving a car that exceeds the regulations.

Fiat is also present in the Indian market since 1948. Current presence is in joint venture with Tata Motors, although current car sales (Fiat is currently offering the Fiat Punto and Fiat Linea) are niche market and limited (approx. 20k units in 2011).

Current Production

Western Countries Markets

The Fiat 500 (Italian: cinquecento, Italian pronunciation: [ˌtʃiŋkweˈtʃɛnto]) is a car produced by the Fiat company of Italy between 1957 and 1975, with limited production of the Fiat 500 K estate continuing until 1977. The car was designed by Dante Giacosa. Redesigned in 2007, it is currently distributed worldwide.

The Fiat Panda is a city car from the Italian automotive manufacturer Fiat. Current version is the third one distributed as from 2012.

The third generation Fiat supermini to bear the name Punto, codenamed Project 199, the Grande Punto was unveiled at the 2005 Frankfurt Motor Show and went on sale later that year. Styled by Giugiaro, the car is based on the Fiat/GM SCCS platform. Whilst the model shares some of its name with the previous Punto, a large number of its components are new, including a new chassis and body shell. After facelift in 2009 it was named as Punto Evo and sold as bare Punto name.

The Fiat 500L enlarges, as from September 2012, the Fiat 500 family with a Mini MPV which replace the Fiat Idea. The model is produced in the new Fiat plant in Serbia. The platform is the same of the Fiat Punto.

Emerging Markets (Production In South America)

Argo is the car that replaced Fiat Palio and Punto for the Brazilian Market produced in Betim - MG Brazil

The Cronos is going to be produced in Argentina in Cordoba and is going to be in the place of Siena and Grand Siena.

The new pickup will took place of Strada, but the project is on hold.

The Fiat Palio is a supermini designed by Fiat as a world car, aimed at developing countries. The Palio Weekend is a small family car station wagon; an extended version of the hatchback Palio.

The Fiat Grand Siena is the four-door sedan version of the second generation of the Fiat Palio, a small family car especially designed for developing countries.

European Cars Of The Year

The European Car of the Year award has been awarded twelve times to the Fiat Group over the last forty years, more than any other manufacturer. Nine of these awards were won by Fiat Automobiles models. Fiat models awarded the title:

CO2 Emissions

Fiat Automobiles, one of Europe's 10 best-selling automotive brands, has for the second year running been confirmed as having the lowest average value for CO2 emissions from vehicles sold in 2008: 133.7 g/km (137.3 g/km in 2007). This was corroborated by JATO, a provider of automotive data.

Electric Vehicles

Fiat started development of electric vehicles back in the mid 1970s, with the concept Fiat X1/23. More recently in 2008, Fiat showed the Phylla concept, and the Fiat Bugster concept in Brazil.

Fiat joined utility companies Cemig and Itaipu to develop new electric vehicles for Brazil, with production in 2009 of the Palio Weekend Electric.

Fiat launched the electric 500e in California in 2013, but no sales were planned for Europe. Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne claimed in 2014 that each one was sold at a loss of $14,000.

Concept Vehicles

Motorsport

In 1971 the Fiat 124 Sport Spider was prepared for the World Rally Championship when Abarth became involved with its production and development and from 1972 had relative success with two wins in 1972, one in 1973 and won 1st, 2nd and 3rd in the 1974 Portuguese TAP Rally.

The Fiat 131 Abarth was a very successful rally car replacing the 124. Between 1976 and 1981 the Fiat 131 won 18 World Rally Championship events, and winning the WRC three times: in 1977, 1978, and in 1980.

Lancia took over the role of motorsport for the Fiat Group during the 1980s. After a long break of factory-supported entries, in 2003 a Fiat Punto S1600 won the Italian Rally Championship, and 2006 the Fiat Grande Punto S2000 won the FIA European Rally Championship, followed by three successive wins in 2009, 2010 and 2011.

Marketing

Logo

The FIAT initials were first used in the distinctive logo form 1901. Beginning in 1931, the company began using a single red shield without a wreath. In 1968 the "rhomboid" logo (as it was known internally) was introduced which featured the FIAT initials spelled out on four interconnected rhombuses. The rhomboid was slowly phased in during the early 1970s, although the older "laurel wreath" style FIAT badge was used to denote sporting models such as the 124 Spider, 127 Sport, X1/9 and the tuned Abarth models. A new corporate nose based on the rhomboid logo was first introduced in 1983 on the Uno, which consisted of five chrome bars inclined at an angle of 18 degrees to mirror the rhomboid, which usually appeared in reduced size at the corner of the grille.

In 1999 the wreath style logo was re-introduced to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the company.

Motor Village And Flagship Stores

Fiat launched its Motor Village flagship store concept in 2006, with its Mirafiori Motor Village in Turin, followed by London's on Wigmore Street in 2008 and Paris's on the Champs-Élysées in 2010.

BSM-Fiat Deal

In 2009, BSM (the British School of Motoring) ended a 16-year relationship with Vauxhall Motors and signed a deal with Fiat UK to swap its learner vehicle from the Vauxhall Corsa to the new Fiat 500. Fiat UK will supply 14,000 cars to BSM over four years in a marketing deal.

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Wednesday, April 10, 2019

The Boy And The Filberts By Aesop

A Boy was given permission to put his hand into a pitcher to get some filberts. But he took such a great fistful that he could not draw his hand out again. There he stood, unwilling to give up a single filbert and yet unable to get them all out at once. Vexed and disappointed he began to cry.

"My boy," said his mother, "be satisfied with half the nuts you have taken and you will easily get your hand out. Then perhaps you may have some more filberts some other time."

Do Not Attempt Too Much At Once.

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Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Camcorder

A camcorder is an electronic device originally combining a video camera and a videocassette recorder.

The earliest camcorders were tape-based, recording analog signals onto videotape cassettes. In 2006, digital recording became the norm, with tape replaced by storage media such as mini-HD, microDVD, internal flash memory and SD cards.

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More recent devices capable of recording video are camera phones and digital cameras primarily intended for still pictures; the term "camcorder" may be used to describe a portable, self-contained device, with video capture and recording its primary function, often having advanced functions over more common cameras.

A Canon VIXIA HF10 camcorder; this is one of Canon's first AVCHD format Flash Memory Full HD camcorders.

History :- Prior to the camcorder, a portable recorder and camera would be required. This is a Sony SL-F1 Betamax recorder and video camera.

Sony Betamovie BMC-100P is the first consumer camcorder. Released in 1983 for the Betamax format. It has no playback functionality and is only capable of recording

Video cameras originally designed for television broadcast were large and heavy, mounted on special pedestals and wired to remote recorders in separate rooms. As technology improved, out-of-studio video recording was possible with compact video cameras and portable video recorders; a detachable recording unit could be carried to a shooting location. Although the camera itself was compact, the need for a separate recorder made on-location shooting a two-person job.[3] Specialized videocassette recorders were introduced by JVC (VHS) and Sony (U-matic, with Betamax) releasing a model for mobile work. Portable recorders meant that recorded video footage could be aired on the early-evening news, since it was no longer necessary to develop film.

In 1983, Sony released the first camcorder, the Betacam system, for professional use.[4] A key component was a single camera-recorder unit, eliminating a cable between the camera and recorder and increasing the camera operator's freedom. The Betacam used the same cassette format (0.5 inches or 1.3 centimetres tape) as the Betamax, but with a different, incompatible recording format. It became standard equipment for broadcast news.[4]

Sony released the first consumer camcorder in 1983, the Betamovie BMC-100P.[4] It used a Betamax cassette and rested on the operator's shoulder, due to a design not permitting a single-handed grip. That year, JVC released the first VHS-C camcorder.[3] Kodak announced a new camcorder format in 1984, the 8 mm video format.[5] Sony introduced its compact 8 mm Video8 format in 1985. That year, Panasonic, RCA and Hitachi began producing camcorders using a full-size VHS cassette with a three-hour capacity. These shoulder-mount camcorders were used by videophiles, industrial videographers and college TV studios. Full-size Super-VHS (S-VHS) camcorders were released in 1987, providing an inexpensive way to collect news segments or other videographies. Sony upgraded Video8, releasing the Hi8 in competition with S-VHS.

Digital technology emerged with the Sony D1, a device which recorded uncompressed data and required a large amount of bandwidth for its time. In 1992 Ampex introduced DCT, the first digital video format with data compression using the discrete cosine transform algorithm present in most commercial digital video formats. In 1995 Sony, JVC, Panasonic and other video-camera manufacturers launched DV, which became a de facto standard for home video production, independent filmmaking and citizen journalism. That year, Ikegami introduced Editcam (the first tapeless video recording system).

Camcorders using DVD media were popular at the turn of the 21st century due to the convenience of being able to drop a disc into the family DVD player; however, DVD capability, due to the limitations of the format, is largely limited to consumer-level equipment targeted at people who are not likely to spend any great amount of effort video editing their video footage.

High Definition (HD)

Panasonic launched DVCPRO HD in 2000, expanding the DV codec to support high definition (HD). The format was intended for professional camcorders, and used full-size DVCPRO cassettes. In 2003 Sony, JVC, Canon and Sharp introduced HDV as the first affordable HD video format, due to its use of inexpensive MiniDV cassettes.

Tapeless

Sony introduced the XDCAM tapeless video format in 2003, introducing the Professional Disc (PFD). Panasonic followed in 2004 with its P2 solid state memory cards as a recording medium for DVCPRO-HD video. In 2006 Panasonic and Sony introduced AVCHD as an inexpensive, tapeless, high-definition video format. AVCHD camcorders are produced by Sony, Panasonic, Canon, JVC and Hitachi. About this time, some consumer grade camcorders with hard disk and/or memory card recording used MOD and TOD file formats, accessible by USB from a PC.

3D

In 2010, after the success of James Cameron's 2009 3D film Avatar, full 1080p HD 3D camcorders entered the market. With the proliferation of file-based digital formats, the relationship between recording media and recording format has declined; video can be recorded onto different media. With tapeless formats, recording media are storage for digital files.

Professional-grade digital camcorder

In 2011 Panasonic released a camcorder capable of shooting in 3D, the HDC-SDT750. It is a 2D camcorder which can shoot in HD; 3D is achieved by a detachable conversion lens. Sony released a 3D camcorder, the HDR-TD10. The Sony's 3D lens is built in, but it can shoot 2D video. Panasonic has also released 2D camcorders with an optional 3D conversion lens. The HDC-SD90, HDC-SD900, HDC-TM900 and HDC-HS900 are sold as "3D-ready": 2D camcorders, with optional 3D capability at a later date.

4K Ultra HD

In CES (January) 2014, Sony announced the first consumer/low-end professional ("prosumer") camcorder Sony FDR-AX100 with a 1" 20.9MP sensor able to shoot 4K video in 3840x2160 pixels 30fps or 24fps in the XAVC-S format; in standard HD the camcorder can also deliver 60fps. When using the traditional format AVCHD, the camcorder supports 5.1 surround sound from its built-in microphone, this is however not supported in the XAVC-S format. The camera also has a 3-step ND filter switch for maintaining a shallow depth of field or a softer appearance to motion. For one hour video shooting in 4K the camera needs about 32 GB to accommodate a data transfer rate of 50 Mbit/s. The camera's MSRP in the US is USD $2,000.[6]

In early 2014 Sony released the FDR-AX100 which represents the next generation of camcorders. It is capable of shooting in 4K resolution. It currently has a price tag of £1,699 and 4K camcorders are not expected to come into the mainstream market for at least another eight to ten years as most current Blu-ray players are not capable of playing 4K video. Virtually all mainstream TVs are not 4K ready either with the only 4K TVs available being very expensive at £2,500 or over. The only means of archiving 4K video is the 100 GB Blu-ray Disc XL but the discs are very expensive.[7]

However, in 2015, consumer UHD (3840x2160) camcorders below USD $1000 have become available. Sony released the FDRAX33, and Panasonic has released the HC-WX970K and the HC-VX870.

In September 2014 Panasonic announced and claimed 4K Ultra HD Camcorder HC-X1000E as the first conventional camcorder design that can capture up to 60fps at 150 Mbit/s or alternatively standard HD recording at up to 200 Mbit/s in ALL-I mode with MP4, MOV and AVCHD formats all offered depending on the resolution and frame rate. With use 1/2.3" small sensor as commonly is used by bridge cameras, the camcorder has 20x optical zoom in a compact body with dual XLR audio inputs, Internal ND filters and separate control rings for focus, iris and zoom. In HD capture, the camcorder get benefit to reduce noises of small sensor by in-camera downscaling of the 4K image to HD.[8]

As of January 2017, the only major manufacturer to announce new consumer camcorders at CES (Consumer Electronic Show) in Las Vegas was Canon with its entry-level HD models. Panasonic only announced details regarding their Mirrorless Micro Four Thirds Digital Camera called the LUMIX GH5, capable of shooting 4K in 60p. This is the first time in decades that Panasonic & Sony haven't announced new traditional camcorders at CES, & instead carried over 2016's models, such as Sony's FDR-AX53. This is due to there being far less demand in the market for traditional camcorders as more & more consumers prefer to record video with their 4K-capable smartphones, DSLRs, and action cameras from GoPro, Xiaomi, Sony, Nikon, and many others.

Components

Camcorders have three major components: lens, imager and recorder. The lens gathers light, focusing it on the imager. The imager (usually a CCD or CMOS sensor; earlier models used vidicon tubes) converts incident light into an electrical signal. The recorder converts the electrical signal to video, encoding it in a storable form. The lens and imager comprise the "camera" section.

Lens

The lens is the first component of the light path. Camcorder optics generally have one or more of the following controls:

In consumer units these adjustments are often automatically controlled by the camcorder, but can be adjusted manually if desired. Professional-grade units offer user control of all major optical functions.

Imager

The imager, often a CCD, or a photodiode array which may be an Active Pixel Sensor, converts light into an electrical signal. The camera lens projects an image onto the imager surface, exposing the photosensitive array to light. This light exposure is converted into an electrical charge. At the end of the timed exposure, the imager converts the accumulated charge into a continuous analog voltage at the imager's output terminals. After the conversion is complete, the photosites reset to start the exposure of the next video frame. In many cases the photosites (per pixel) are actually reset globally by charging to a fixed voltage, and discharged towards zero individually proportionally to the accumulated light, because it is simpler to manufacture the sensor that way.

Most camcorders use a single imaging sensor with integrated colour filters, per pixel, to enable red, green and blue to be sensed, each on their own set of pixels. The individual pixel filters present a significant manufacturing challenge. However some camcorders, even consumer grade devices such as the JVC GZ-HD3, introduced around 2007, are triple sensor cameras, usually CCD but could be CMOS. In this case the exact alignment of the three sensors so that the red, green and blue components of the video output are correctly aligned, is the manufacturing challenge.

Recorder

The recorder writes the video signal onto a recording medium, such as magnetic videotape. Since the record function involves many signal-processing steps, some distortion and noise historically appeared on the stored video; playback of the stored signal did not have the exact characteristics and detail as a live video feed. All camcorders have a recorder-controlling section, allowing the user to switch the recorder into playback mode for reviewing recorded footage, and an image-control section controlling exposure, focus and color balance.

The image recorded need not be limited to what appeared in the viewfinder. For documenting events (as in law enforcement), the field of view overlays the time and date of the recording along the top and bottom of the image. The police car or constable badge number to which the recorder was given, the car's speed at the time of recording, compass direction and geographical coordinates may also be seen.

Types

Analog And Digital

An RCA AutoShot VHS Camcorder. It can only record up to four hours of NTSC analog video.

Camcorders are often classified by their storage device; VHS, VHS-C, Betamax, Video8 are examples of late 20th century videotape-based camcorders which record video in analog form. Digital video camcorder formats include Digital8, MiniDV, DVD, hard disk drive, direct to disk recording and solid-state, semiconductor flash memory. While all these formats record video in digital form, Digital8, MiniDV, DVD and hard-disk drives[9] have no longer been manufactured in consumer camcorders since 2006.

In the earliest analog camcorders the imaging device is vacuum-tube technology, in which the charge of a light-sensitive target was directly proportional to the amount of light striking it; the Vidicon is an example of such an imaging tube. Newer analog, and digital camcorders use a solid-state charge-coupled imaging device (CCD) or a CMOS imager. Both are analog detectors, using photodiodes to pass a current proportional to the light striking them. The current is then digitised before being electronically scanned and fed to the imager's output. The main difference between the two devices is how the scanning is done. In the CCD the diodes are sampled simultaneously, and the scan passes the digitised data from one register to the next. In CMOS devices, the diodes are sampled directly by the scanning logic.

Digital video storage retains higher-quality video than analog storage, especially on the prosumer and strictly consumer levels. MiniDV storage allows full-resolution video (720x576 for PAL, 720x480 for NTSC), unlike analog consumer-video standards. Digital video does not experience colour bleeding, jitter, or fade.

Unlike analog formats, digital formats do not experience generation loss during dubbing; however, they are more prone to complete loss. Although digital information can theoretically be stored indefinitely without deterioration, some digital formats (like MiniDV) place tracks only about 10 micrometers apart (compared with 19–58 μm for VHS). A digital recording is more vulnerable to wrinkles or stretches in the tape which could erase data, but tracking and error-correction code on the tape compensates for most defects. On analog media, similar damage registers as "noise" in the video, leaving a deteriorated (but watchable) video. DVDs may develop DVD rot, losing large chunks of data. An analog recording may be "usable" after its storage media deteriorates severely, but[10] slight media degradation in digital recordings may trigger an "all or nothing" failure; the digital recording will be unplayable without extensive restoration.

Recording Media

Older digital camcorders record video onto tape digitally, microdrives, hard drives, and small DVD-RAM or DVD-Rs. Newer machines since 2006 record video onto flash memory devices and internal solid-state drives in MPEG-1, MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 format.[11] Because these codecs use inter-frame compression, frame-specific editing requires frame regeneration, additional processing and may lose picture information. Codecs storing each frame individually, easing frame-specific scene editing, are common in professional use.

Other digital consumer camcorders record in DV or HDV format on tape, transferring content over FireWire or USB 2.0 to a computer where large files (for DV, 1GB for 4 to 4.6 minutes in PAL/NTSC resolutions) can be edited, converted and recorded back to tape. The transfer is done in real time, so the transfer of a 60-minute tape requires one hour to transfer and about 13GB of disk space for the raw footage (plus space for rendered files and other media).

Tapeless

A tapeless camcorder is a camcorder that does not use video tape for the digital recording of video productions as 20th century ones did. Tapeless camcorders record video as digital computer files onto data storage devices such as optical discs, hard disk drives and solid-state flash memory cards.[12]

Inexpensive pocket video cameras use flash memory cards, while some more expensive camcorders use solid-state drives or SSD; similar flash technology is used on semi-pro and high-end professional video cameras for ultrafast transfer of high-definition television (HDTV) content.

Most consumer-level tapeless camcorders use MPEG-2, MPEG-4 or its derivatives as video coding formats. They are normally capable of still-image capture to JPEG format additionally.

Consumer-grade tapeless camcorders include a USB port to transfer video onto a computer. Professional models include other options like Serial digital interface (SDI) or HDMI. Some tapeless camcorders are equipped with a Firewire (IEEE-1394) port to ensure compatibility with magnetic tape-based DV and HDV formats.

Consumer Market

Since the consumer market favors ease of use, portability and price, most consumer-grade camcorders emphasize handling and automation over audio and video performance. Most devices with camcorder capability are camera phones or compact digital cameras, in which video is a secondary capability. Some pocket cameras, mobile phones and camcorders are shock-, dust- and waterproof.[13]

This market has followed an evolutionary path driven by miniaturization and cost reduction enabled by progress in design and manufacture. Miniaturization reduces the imager's ability to gather light; designers have balanced improvements in sensor sensitivity with size reduction, shrinking the camera imager and optics while maintaining relatively noise-free video in daylight. Indoor or dim-light shooting is generally noisy, and in such conditions artificial lighting is recommended. Mechanical controls cannot shrink below a certain size, and manual camera operation has given way to camera-controlled automation for every shooting parameter (including focus, aperture, shutter speed and color balance). The few models with manual override are menu-driven. Outputs include USB 2.0, Composite and S-Video and IEEE 1394/Firewire (for MiniDV models).

The high end of the consumer market emphasizes user control and advanced shooting modes. More-expensive consumer camcorders offer manual exposure control, HDMI output and external audio input, progressive-scan frame rates (24fps, 25fps, 30fps) and higher-quality lenses than basic models. To maximize low-light capability, color reproduction and frame resolution, multi-CCD/CMOS camcorders mimic the 3-element imager design of professional equipment. Field tests have shown that most consumer camcorders (regardless of price) produce noisy video in low light.

Before the 21st century, video editing required two recorders and a desktop video workstation to control them. A typical home personal computer can hold several hours of standard-definition video, and is fast enough to edit footage without additional upgrades. Most consumer camcorders are sold with basic video editing software, so users can create their own DVDs or share edited footage online.

Since 2006, nearly all camcorders sold are digital. Tape-based (MiniDV/HDV) camcorders are no longer popular, since tapeless models (with an SD card or internal SSD) cost almost the same but offer greater convenience; video captured on an SD card can be transferred to a computer faster than digital tape. None of the consumer-class camcorders announced at the 2006 International Consumer Electronics Show recorded on tape.

Other Devices

Video-capture capability is not confined to camcorders. Cellphones, digital single-lens reflex and compact digicams, laptops and personal media players offer video-capture capability, but most multipurpose devices offer less video-capture functionality than an equivalent camcorder. Most lack manual adjustments, audio input, autofocus and zoom. Few capture in standard TV-video formats (480p60, 720p60, 1080i30), recording in either non-TV resolutions (320x240, 640x480) or slower frame rates (15 or 30 fps).

A multipurpose device used as a camcorder offers inferior handling, audio and video performance, which limits its utility for extended or adverse shooting situations. The camera phone developed video capability during the early 21st century, reducing sales of low-end camcorders.

DSLR cameras with high-definition video were also introduced early in the 21st century. Although they still have the handling and usability deficiencies of other multipurpose devices, HDSLR video offers the shallow depth-of-field and interchangeable lenses lacking in consumer camcorders. Professional video cameras with these capabilities are more expensive than the most expensive video-capable DSLR. In video applications where the DSLR's operational deficiencies can be mitigated, DSLRs such as the Canon 5D Mark II provide depth-of-field and optical-perspective control.

Combo-cameras combine full-feature still cameras and camcorders in a single unit. The Sanyo Xacti HD1 was the first such unit, combining the features of a 5.1 megapixel still camera with a 720p video recorder with improved handling and utility. Canon and Sony have introduced camcorders with still-photo performance approaching that of a digicam, and Panasonic has introduced a DSLR body with video features approaching that of a camcorder. Hitachi has introduced the DZHV 584E/EW, with 1080p resolution and a touch screen.

Flip Video

The Flip Video was a series of tapeless camcorders introduced by Pure Digital Technologies in 2006. Slightly larger than a smartphone, the Flip Video was a basic camcorder with record, zoom, playback and browse buttons and a USB jack for uploading video. The original models recorded at a 640x480-pixel resolution; later models featured HD recording at 1280x720 pixels. The Mino was a smaller Flip Video, with the same features as the standard model. The Mino was the smallest of all camcorders, slightly wider than a MiniDV cassette and smaller than most smartphones on the market. In fact the Mino was small enough to fit inside the shell of a VHS cassette. Later HD models featured larger screens. In 2011, the Flip Video (more recently manufactured by Cisco) was discontinued.

Interchangeable Lenses

Interchangeable-lens camcorders can capture HD video with DSLR lenses and an adapter.

Built-In Projector

In 2011, Sony launched its HDR-PJ range of HD camcorders: the HDR-PJ10, 30 and 50. Known as Handycams, they were the first camcorders to incorporate a small image projector on the side of the unit. This feature allows a group of viewers to watch video without a television, a full-size projector or a computer. These camcorders were a huge success and Sony subsequently released further models in this range. Sony's current 2014 line up comprises the HDR-PJ240, HDR-PJ330 (entry level models), HDR-PJ530 (mid-range model) and the HDR-PJ810 (top of the range). Specifications vary by model.

Uses

Media :- Professional TV camcorder (90's era)

Operating a Panasonic VDRM70 DVD camcorder with one hand

Camcorders are used by nearly all electronic media, from electronic-news organizations to current-affairs TV productions. In remote locations, camcorders are useful for initial video acquisition; the video is subsequently transmitted electronically to a studio or production center for broadcast. Scheduled events (such as press conferences), where a video infrastructure is readily available or can be deployed in advance, are still covered by studio-type video cameras "tethered" to production trucks.

Home Video

Camcorders often cover weddings, birthdays, graduations, children's growth and other personal events. The rise of the consumer camcorder during the mid- to late 1980s led to the creation of TV shows such as America's Funniest Home Videos, which showcases homemade video footage.

Politics

Political protesters use camcorders to film what they believe unjust. Animal rights protesters who break into factory farms and animal testing labs use camcorders to film the conditions in which the animals are living. Anti-hunting protesters film fox hunts. People investigating political crimes use surveillance cameras for evidence-gathering. Activist videos often appear on Indymedia.

Police use camcorders to film riots, protests and crowds at sporting events. The film can be used to spot troublemakers, who can then be prosecuted. In countries such as the United States, the use of compact dashcams in police cars allows the police to retain a record of activity in front of the car (such as interaction with a stopped motorist).

Entertainment

Camcorders are used in the production of low-budget TV shows if the production crew does not have access to more expensive equipment. Movies have been shot entirely on consumer camcorder equipment (such as The Blair Witch Project, 28 Days Later and Paranormal Activity). Academic filmmaking programs have also switched from 16mm film to digital video in early 2010s, due to the reduced expense and ease of editing of digital media and the increasing scarcity of film stock and equipment. Some camcorder manufacturers cater to this market; Canon and Panasonic support 24p (24 fps, progressive scan—the same frame rate as cinema film) video in some high-end models for easy film conversion.

Education

Schools in the developed world increasingly use digital media and digital education. Students use camcorders to record video diaries, make short films and develop multi-media projects across subject boundaries. Teacher evaluation involves a teacher's classroom lessons being recorded for review by officials, especially for questions of teacher tenure.

Student camcorder-created material and other digital technology are used in new-teacher preparation courses. The University of Oxford Department of Education PGCE programme and NYU's Steinhardt School's Department of Teaching and Learning MAT program are examples.

The USC Rossier School of Education goes further, insisting that all students purchase their own camcorder (or similar) as a prerequisite to their MAT education programs (many of which are delivered online). These programs employ a modified version of Adobe Connect to deliver the courses. Recordings of MAT student work are posted on USC's web portal for evaluation by faculty as if they were present in class. Camcorders have allowed USC to decentralize its teacher preparation from Southern California to most American states and abroad; this has increased the number of teachers it can train.

Formats

The following list covers consumer equipment only (for other formats, see videotape):

Analog

Video8 Camcorder

Lo-Band: Approximately 3 MHz bandwidth (250 lines EIA resolution, or ~333x480 edge-to-edge)

·        BCE (1954): First tape storage for video, manufactured by Bing Crosby Entertainment from Ampex equipment

·        BCE Color (1955): First color tape storage for video, manufactured by Bing Crosby Entertainment from Ampex equipment

·        Simplex (1955): Developed commercially by RCA and used to record live broadcasts by NBC

·        Quadruplex videotape (1955): Developed formally by Ampex, this was the recording standard for 20 years.

·        Vision electronic recording apparatus (Vera) (1955): An experimental recording standard developed by the BBC, it was never used or sold commercially.

·        U-matic (1971): Tape originally used by Sony to record video

·        U-matic S (1974): A smaller version of U-matic, used for portable recorders

·        Betamax (1975): Used on old Sony and Sanyo camcorders and portables; obsolete by the late 1980s in the consumer market

·        VHS (1976): Compatible with VHS VCRs; no longer manufactured

·        VHS-C (1982): Originally designed for portable VCRs, this standard was later adapted for compact consumer camcorders; identical in quality to VHS; cassettes play in VHS VCRs with an adapter. Still available in the low-end consumer market. Relatively short running time compared to other formats.

·        Video8 (1985): Small-format tape developed by Sony to compete with VHS-C's palm-sized design; equivalent to VHS or Betamax in picture quality

Hi-Band: Approximately 5 MHz bandwidth (420 lines EIA resolution, or ~ 550x480 edge-to-edge)

·        U-matic BVU (1982): Largely used in high-end consumer and professional equipment

·        U-matic BVU-SP (1985): Largely used in high-end consumer and professional equipment

·        S-VHS (1987): Largely used in mid-range consumer and prosumer equipment

·        S-VHS-C (1987): Limited to low-end consumer market

·        Hi8 (1988): Used in low to mid-range consumer equipment but also was available as prosumer/industrial equipment

Digital

Sony Handycam DCR-IP7BT MICROMV camcorder and Sony MICROMV tape (top), compared with MiniDV and Hi8 tapes

  • DV (1995): Initially developed by Sony, the DV standard became the most widespread standard-definition digital camcorder technology for the next decade. The DV format was the first to make capturing footage for video editing possible without special hardware, using the 4- or 6-pin Firewire sockets common on computers at the time.
  • DVCPRO (1995): Panasonic released its own variant of the DV format for broadcast news-gathering.
  • DVCAM (1996): Sony's answer to the DVCPRO
  • DVD recordable (1996): A variety of recordable optical disc standards were released by multiple manufacturers during the 1990s and 2000s, of which DVD-RAM was the first. The most common in camcorders was MiniDVD-R, which used recordable 8 cm discs holding 30 minutes of MPEG video.
  • D-VHS (1998): JVC's VHS tape supporting 720p/1080i HD; many units also supported IEEE 1394 recording.
  • Digital8 (1999): Uses Hi8 tapes; most can read older Video8 and Hi8 analog tapes.
  • MICROMV (2001): Matchbox-sized cassette. Sony was the only electronics manufacturer for this format, and editing software was proprietary to Sony and only available on Microsoft Windows; however, open source programmers did manage to create capture software for Linux.
  • Blu-ray Disc (2003): Manufactured by Hitachi
  • HDV (2004): Records up to an hour of HDTV MPEG-2 signal on a MiniDV cassette
  • MPEG-2 codec-based format: Records MPEG-2 program stream or MPEG-2 transport stream to various kinds of tapeless standard and HD media (hard disks, solid-state memory, etc.).
  • H.264: Compressed video using the H.264 codec in an MPEG-4 file; usually stored in tapeless media
  • AVCHD: Puts H.264 video into a transport-stream file format; compressed in H.264 format (not MPEG-4)
  • Multiview Video Coding: Amendment to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video compression for sequences captured from multiple cameras using a single video stream; backwards-compatible with H.264

Operating Systems

Since most manufacturers focus their support on Windows and Mac users, users of other operating systems have difficulty finding support for their devices. However, open-source products such as Kdenlive, Cinelerra and Kino (written for the Linux operating system) allow editing of most popular digital formats on alternative operating systems and can be used in conjunction with OBS for online broadcast solutions; software to edit DV streams is available on most platforms.

Digital Forensics :- The Issue Of Digital-Camcorder Forensics To Recover Data (E.G. Video Files With Timestamps) Has Been Addressed.

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