Tuesday, November 20, 2012

Resume Cheat Sheet: 5 Tips For A Winning Resume

Who has time to write a resume? We know you have a busy life – and sometimes there's just not enough time in the day to scan through articles to get the information you need.

That's why we created the Resume Cheat Sheet! We pulled the best tips, tricks, and advice from our archives and put them all in one place just for you.

Resume Cheat Sheet

Here are five solid resume tips from our experts:

1. Amp Up Your Work Experience

There's no law that requires your experience to be contained in a section called "Work History." What about "Sales Achievements and Performance" or "Relevant Technical Leadership Roles?"

Why not try "Operations Management Career" if your focus is a new role in manufacturing production or within a call center?

This technique is especially effective if you're trying to direct attention toward a specific part of your experience, helping to connect disparate parts of your career to the role you're targeting.

2. Customization is Critical

Remember, you always want to tweak your resume when you apply for a job. No two positions are exactly alike, and each employer is going to have different standards and requirements that are very important to them. Key in on those requirements, and be sure to incorporate them into your resume.

You'll know what these requirements are by reviewing the job advertisement and noting special keywords throughout; or, in most cases, the employer will state required skills or preferred qualifications. You're a perfect match when you meet all of the required and preferred qualifications.

3. White Space is Important

Most resumes have at least a half inch margin, but a full inch is preferable. If your margins are smaller, you risk losing content if the document is printed by the hiring manager. Plus, a resume that lacks a one inch margin is harder for the reader to peruse and may look cluttered or chaotic – two qualities that are not often sought by employers.

4. Use Numbers and Symbols

Numbers and symbols quickly jump out at employers so use them whenever you can. Resumes have their own special rules and I always show all numbers as digits as they catch the eye. Percentages are always best as they show the impact of your efforts.

For example, saying "Increased sales $750K over prior year" is nice but to some companies that is petty cash and your company might not like your giving out their private information; better to say "Increased sales 43% over prior year." Simply avoid words that don't define, such as "many," "few" and "several."

(Original Article: "4 Ways to Turn Resume Fluff into Marketable Facts")

5. Determine the Right Keywords

There are simple ways to figure out what keywords should go on your resume.

  1. Review the Job Posting - The job posting typically tells you the title or position, specific experiences, skills and education desired or required of a candidate. Highlight all these keywords and work them into your resume in context.
  2. Job Description - Conduct searches on career or job board websites for job descriptions of the position you are applying for. You will notice common keywords coming from each of the job descriptions that you can also use in context for your resume.
  3. Company/Organization Website - Review its website. You will notice there are field or industry specific terms that are commonly used that should also be applied to your resume in context.

If you are applying for a job as an experienced professional in the same field, your resume may very likely already contain a few of the appropriate keywords. Your relevant experience and the professional lingo you have come to know has helped you apply it to your resume when describing your previous work experiences, but make sure you take the opportunity to optimize every section of your resume with keywords.

Thanks to Ariella Coombs / Careerealism / Careerealism Media


Passion Vs. Hobby: Which One Is Better For Your Career?

As someone who's decided to follow a career in journalism I am often asked: why do you want to be journalist? The answer for me is simple – because I want to pursue my passion: writing about the things that matter.

Though I generally get that what are you thinking? look when I answer this question, I tend to think about a quote from the late Apple CEO, Steve Jobs: "Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do." Wise words to live by, here's why:

In a recent study by GALLUP, "71 percent of American workers are 'not engaged' or 'actively disengaged' in their work." This is largely attributed to a general unhappiness with their line of work that creates a rift between the employee and their job. As a result, they are less productive and we all know where that leads. A company can't be as successful as it could be if they have employees who are unsatisfied with their job.

Another article found on the Fast Company website, discusses the fact that in order for our brains and bodies to "think clearly" and work to their "full potential," our emotional state needs to stay positive, because the suppression of our emotions in the workplace "greatly inhibits human functioning."

It goes without saying that our emotional happiness in the workplace matters, and how can you be unhappy if you're doing something you love doing? This can get tricky.

It's easy for people to say they are passionate about X when they really like doing X, but a lot of the times this so-called passion is merely a hobby, and that's probably not a good thing to pursue. I'm not saying hobbies can't be turned into careers, but I am suggesting for you to tread carefully because:

Hobbies Change

I'm going to borrow a quick exercise (with my own twist) from Jeff Haden in an article he recently wrote. Ask yourself, what were some of the things you thought you were passionate about when you were younger? Now, think about the things you're passionate about now. Are they any different?

Chances are your passions have changed, right? That's because they weren't passions. They were merely interests or hobbies that entertained you or were leisurely activities you simply enjoyed. And as I've already pointed out, hobbies change, which is why it's important to make this distinction early on before attempting to turn your hobby into a career.

What About Passions?

Hobbies are not exclusive to change, this can happen with passions, too. However, it is less likely for the following reasons:

  1. Passions are more than a mere interest. They're a strong interest for something. If you have a passion for something, you're spending all, if not most, of your free time on your passion. Strengthening it in any way you can, and always thinking about what you're going to do next with it. It's hard to want to stop doing something you truly love, when you don't ever want to stop doing it.
  2. When you have a passion you're not afraid to work for it. This is where passion trumps hobbies the most. Pursuing your passion is more than likely going to take some time and it's going to take a lot of effort. It will be easier to give up on your career goals if you're not willing to put in the hours or the work, and no one is going to do this for something that's only a mere interest like a hobby.

So the next time you think you love something and should make a career out of it, sit down and really think about whether you really love it or simply like it. If it will keep you from becoming part of the 71 percent of disengaged Americans, it's definitely worth looking into.

Thanks to Belen Chacon / Careerealism / Careerealism Media


Why “Constructive Feedback” Doesn’t Improve Employee Performance

In his article in the Harvard Business Review, Tony Schwartz, president and chief executive of the Energy Project, and author of Be Excellent At Anything, says that when we hear the phrase from someone, "would you mind if I give you some feedback?" what it actually means to most of us is "would you mind if I gave you some negative feedback," wrapped up in the guise of constructive criticism, whether or not you want it.

There are some fundamental problems with negative criticism, regardless of whether we clothe it politely as "constructive." First, Schwartz contends, criticism "challenges our sense of value. It implies judgment and we all recoil from being judged." Psychologists including Daniel Goleman, contend that threats to our self-esteem and sense of self-worth in the form of criticism can feel like threats to our survival.

Schwartz identifies three mistakes people make when giving critical feedback:

  1. The belief that our own value or self-esteem is being threatened; so the issue is really about you and not the other person;
  2. The more the other person feels threatened, the less open they are to value or consider your feedback;
  3. It's about "being right," and the other person "being wrong," so you build a case and story that makes your perspective "true" and the other person's perspective "faulty."

Part of our resistance to positive reactions to negative feedback is the way our brains work. Neuroscientists have clearly identified that our brains are fundamentally protective, defensive mechanisms. If your ego and sense of self is threatened, your brain unconsciously will act to protect and defend, either actively or passively.

Nowhere does negative or constructive criticism appear more frequently than in performance reviews of employees. The prevailing theory is that such criticism will improve the employee's performance, and in addition the employee will positively welcome it. Nothing is further from the truth.

Managers rate performance appraisals high on their list of tasks they dislike, second only to firing an employee. In fact, neuroscience research has shown that providing negative performance appraisal feedback causes actual physical pain to both the employee and the manager. The traditional performance appraisal as practiced in the majority of organizations is fundamentally flawed, and incongruent with our values-based, vision-driven and collaborative work environments.

Robert Sutton, a Stanford University professor, contends performance evaluations do more harm than good. A 1998 study by Development Dimensions Inc., found employers expressed overwhelming dissatisfaction with performance reviews. Consulting firm People IQ, in a 2005 national survey, found that 87% of employees and managers felt performance reviews were neither useful nor effective. In an article published in The Psychological Bulletin, psychologists A. Kluger and A. Denisi report completion of a meta-analysis of 607 studies of performance evaluations and concluded that at least 30% of those reviews ended up in decreased employee performance.

Literature abounds with systems and strategies for giving constructive criticism, and consultants have made lucrative livings implementing such systems in organizations, despite how flawed there are. Perhaps the silliest component of these systems is to suggest to the person giving the constructive feedback to "sandwich it" between positive statements, as if the person receiving the feedback will focus on the positive part  of the sandwich, and not the negative. Again, this ignores the brain's programmed preference to respond to negative information.

The reality is that constructive criticism is an oxymoron. All criticism is inherently destructive and negative, however we may attempt to window dress it, or "sandwich it" between positive statements. Anything constructive is associated with growth, which requires a person to be open, not in a defensive state of mind. When put together, these two ideas constitute an oxymoron. To be in an open, receiving state of mind, the feedback must be positive, or at least guide the recipient to self-awareness and self-discovery.

Thanks to Ray Williams / Business Financial Post / National Post / Postmedia Network Inc.


Watch For Signs You Could Be Aging Out Of Your Job

Are you beginning to pick up signs in the workplace or on job interviews that your industry has changed and left you behind? The signs may be subtle or direct, but the reality could be that you are aging out of your job.      

Now, more than ever, it is important to understand how such communications may be transmitted so you can identify if you are at risk of aging out of your work. With this insight, you may be able to take action to protect yourself and your livelihood. Here are signs to watch for:

What Is Going on Around You?

Sometimes, organizations change -- that is a normal part of business. And while aging out is not necessarily age discrimination, some changes in your workplace or industry could lead to you being left behind in part because of your age. 

  • Demographics: Are younger,less-tenured employees being promoted ahead of you? This is a not-so-subtle sign that you are deliberately being passed over.
  • Skill Sets: Has the entire division and/or company changed underneath or around you? If the company is using newer terminology you don't use or you feel you've resisted technological changes that your company has instituted, this could add to your feelings of separation in the workplace. You inadvertently could be working your skills into obsolescence.
  • At the Interview: A shallow exchange between you and the interviewer could indicate you should cut your losses, as the employer may have already made some assumptions about your hireability based on how old you look. This is a very disturbing signal. Either the recruiter or hiring manger felt obligated to interview you or was just going through the motions after already deciding you're the wrong candidate.
Five Aging-Out Messages

When a current or potential employer uses one of the following five phrases, it could mean you've crested the wave in their minds:

1. 'You've Been Here So Long'

If someone has actually uttered this comment in an annual review, after a meeting or casually over lunch, it could be a signal the speaker thinks you're aging out of your position. Gayle Parker, director of Aegis Consulting, says that these kinds of remarks may be signs your tenure at the company has outlived its usefulness. Consider whether to follow up with the employee who said this and/or if it's time to pursue outside opportunities.

2. The Position Is 'Very Stressful'

If a supervisor describes a potential new position for you in this manner, he may really be saying that the job requires more energy or output than he's used to seeing from you these days.

3. 'You Can't Teach an Old Dog New Tricks'

This means that your boss believes the company is involved in doing things you don't know about or don't understand, or that the language used to talk about your business has changed.

4. 'You're Overqualified' or 'You Have More Experience Than We Require"

If your years of experience only yield that you have years working in the field, you may not be offering the value today's employers are seeking. Erika Weinstein, president and cofounder of Stephen-Bradford Search, says that senior-suite positions now require a demonstrated ability to impact the bottom line. This means job seekers and employees need to show the results of the work they've done.

5. 'We're Looking for Someone with a Fresh Approach'

This can be job interviewer code that your resume and profile are just too outdated for the job requirements. Rethink how to market your contributions you made while in your last position. Remember to emphasize how your efforts impacted the company's mission or bottom line.

What Can You Do If You Think You Might Be Aging Out?

Before someone tells you that you've aged out, you have to recognize the signs yourself and do something about it. "The problems are different today and every solution is inherently different too," says Parker.

Think about retraining and staying up-to-date on the trends and practices in your industry and affecting your company. And don't be afraid of education at any age if it makes sense for you and your career.

Sunday, November 18, 2012

Time Zone

A time zone is a region on Earth, more or less bounded by lines of longitude, that has a uniform, legally mandated standard time, usually referred to as the local time. By convention, the 24 main time zones on Earth compute their local time as an offset from UTC (see also Greenwich Mean Time). Local time in each time zone is UTC plus the current time zone offset for the location in question. In theory, the increase proceeds eastward from the eastern boundary of the UTC time zone centered on 0°, increasing by one hour for each 15°, up to the International Date Line (longitude 180°). A corresponding one hour decrease relative to UTC occurs every 15° heading westward from the western boundary of the UTC time zone, up to the International Date Line.


Standard time zones can be defined by geometrically subdividing the Earth's spheroid into 24 lunes (wedge-shaped sections), bordered by meridians each 15° of longitude apart. The local time in neighboring zones would differ by one hour. However, political boundaries, geographical practicalities, and convenience of inhabitants can result in irregularly shaped zones. Moreover, in a few regions, half-hour or quarter-hour differences are in effect.

Before the adoption of time zones, people used local solar time. Originally this was apparent or true solar time, as shown by a sundial, and later it became mean solar time, as kept by most mechanical clocks. Mean solar time has days of equal length, but the difference between mean and apparent solar time, called the equation of time, averages to zero over a year.

The use of local solar time became increasingly awkward as railways and telecommunications improved, because clocks differed between places by an amount corresponding to the difference in their geographical longitude, which was usually not a convenient number. This problem could be solved by synchronizing the clocks in all localities, but in many places the local time would then differ markedly from the solar time to which people were accustomed. Time zones are a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to approximate the mean solar time. There has been a general trend to set the boundaries of time zones west of their designated meridians in order to create a permanent daylight saving time effect. The increase in worldwide communication has further increased the need for interacting parties to communicate mutually comprehensible time references to one another. Thus, the advance of technology has both forced (rail transport) and enabled (modern timepieces) the development of arbitrary official "time."

Time zones may be adjusted seasonally into standard and daylight saving (or summer) variants. Daylight saving time zones (or summer time zones) include an offset (typically +1 hour) for daylight saving time.

Standard time zones

Enlarge picture
Standard time zones of the world as of March 2010

Time zones are based on Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), the mean solar time at longitude 0° (the Prime Meridian). The definition of GMT was recently changed – it was previously the same as UT1, a mean solar time calculated directly from the rotation of the Earth. As the rate of rotation of the Earth is not constant, the time derived from atomic clocks was adjusted to closely match UT1. In January 1972, however, the length of the second in both Greenwich Mean Time and atomic time was equalised. The readings of participating atomic clocks are averaged out to give a uniform time scale.

Because the length of the average day is very slightly longer than 86400 seconds (24 hours x 60 minutes/hour x 60 seconds/minute), leap seconds are periodically inserted into Greenwich Mean Time to make it approximate to UT1. This new time system is also called Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Leap seconds are inserted to keep UTC within 0.9 seconds of UT1. Because of the secular (long term) slowing down of the Earth's rotation, leap seconds will gradually need to be added more and more often. But on short time scales (from one year to the next) the rotation rate is irregular, so leap seconds are not added unless observations of Earth's rotation show that one is required. In this way, local times continue to correspond approximately to mean solar time, while the effects of variations in Earth's rotation rate are confined to simple step changes that can be more easily applied to the uniform time scale (International Atomic Time or TAI). All local times differ from TAI by an integral number of seconds. With the implementation of UTC, nations began to use it in the definition of their time zones. As of 2005, most but not all nations had altered the definition of local time in this way.

In England, this involved redefining Greenwich Mean Time to make it the same as UTC.[1] British Summer Time (BST) is still one hour in advance of Greenwich Mean Time and is therefore also one hour in advance of Coordinated Universal Time. Thus Greenwich Mean Time is the local time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich between 0100 hours GMT on the last Sunday in October and 0100 hours GMT on the last Sunday in March. Similar circumstances apply in many other places.

Looking to the future, leap seconds are considered by many to be a nuisance, and ways to abolish them are being considered. This means letting the time difference accumulate. One suggestion is to insert a "leap-hour" in about 5,000 years. For more on this discussion read leap second#Proposal to abolish leap seconds.

Notation of time (ISO 8601)


If the time is in UTC, add a "Z" directly after the time without a space. "Z" is the zone designator for the zero UTC offset. "09:30 UTC" is therefore represented as "09:30Z" or "0930Z". "14:45:15 UTC" would be "14:45:15Z" or "144515Z".

UTC time is also known as "Zulu" time, since "Zulu" is the ICAO spelling alphabet code word for "Z".

Time zone as offsets from UTC

Time zone are written as offset from UTC in the format ±[hh]:[mm], ±[hh][mm], or ±[hh]. So if the time being described is one hour ahead of UTC (such as the time in Berlin during the winter), the zone designator would be "+01:00", "+0100", or simply "+01". This is appended to the time in the same way that 'Z' was above. The offset from UTC changes with daylight saving time, e.g. a time offset in Chicago, which is in the North American Central Time Zone, would be "−06:00" for the winter (Central Standard Time) and "−05:00" for the summer (Central Daylight Time).


Time zones are often represented by abbreviations such as "EST, WST, CST" but these are not part of the international time and date standard ISO 8601 and their use as sole designator for a time zone is not recommended. Such designations can be ambiguous. For example, "BST", which is British Summer Time, was renamed "British Standard Time" between 1968 and 1971 when Central European Time was in force because legislators objected to calling it Central European Time. The same legislation affirmed that the Standard Time within the United Kingdom was, and would continue to be, Greenwich Mean Time.


Location(s) Time zone Time
Baker Island, Howland Island (both uninhabited) UTC−12 00:00
Samoa, American Samoa UTC−11 01:00
Hawaii, Papeete UTC−10 02:00
Marquesas Islands UTC−09:30 02:30
Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau UTC−09 03:00
Vancouver, Washington (U.S. state), Portland, Las Vegas, California, Baja California UTC−08 04:00
Alberta, Colorado, Arizona, Chihuahua, Sonora UTC−07 05:00
Costa Rica, Dallas, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Houston, Illinois, Manitoba, Mexico City, Nicaragua, Saskatchewan UTC−06 06:00
Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal, Boston, New York, North Carolina, Washington D.C., Georgia, Miami, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Panama, Colombia, Continental Ecuador, Peru UTC−05 07:00
Venezuela UTC−04:30 07:30
Nova Scotia, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Amazonas, Bolivia, Continental Chile, Paraguay, San Luis Province UTC−04 08:00
Newfoundland UTC−03:30 08:30
Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Argentina (except San Luis Province), Uruguay, Nuuk UTC−03 09:00
Fernando de Noronha, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands UTC−02 10:00
Azores, Cape Verde UTC−01 11:00
Iceland, United Kingdom, Ireland, Continental Portugal, Morocco, Senegal, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire UTC 12:00

Albania, Slovenia, Macedonia, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Metropolitan France, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, European Spain, Italy, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Tunisia, Algeria, Nigeria, Cameroon, Angola, Kinshasa

UTC+01 13:00

Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa

UTC+02 14:00
Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Samara, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Madagascar UTC+03 15:00
Iran UTC+03:30 15:30
Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Seychelles, Mauritius UTC+04 16:00
Afghanistan UTC+04:30 16:30
Sverdlovsk, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Maldives, Kazakhstan UTC+05 17:00
India, Sri Lanka UTC+05:30 17:30
Nepal UTC+05:45 17:45
Novosibirsk, Almaty, Bangladesh UTC+06 18:00
Myanmar, Cocos Islands UTC+06:30 18:30
Krasnoyarsk, Thailand, Vietnam, Jakarta UTC+07 19:00
Irkutsk, Ulan Bator, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Western Australia UTC+08 20:00
Zabaykalsky, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, East Timor UTC+09 21:00
Northern Territory, South Australia UTC+09:30 21:30
Victoria, Tasmania, Queensland, New South Wales, Primorsky UTC+10 22:00
Lord Howe Island UTC+10:30 22:30
Kamchatka, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia UTC+11 23:00
Norfolk Island UTC+11:30 23:30
Fiji, New Zealand UTC+12 00:00 (the following day)
Chatham Islands UTC+12:45 00:45 (the following day)
Tonga UTC+13 01:00 (the following day)
Line Islands UTC+14 02:00 (the following day)

Where the adjustment for time zones results in a time at the other side of midnight from UTC, then the date at the location is one day later or earlier.

Some examples when UTC is 23:00 on Monday when or where daylight saving time is not in effect:

Some examples when UTC is 02:00 on Tuesday when or where daylight saving time is not in effect:

  • Honolulu, Hawaii, United States: UTC−10; 16:00 on Monday
  • Toronto, Ontario, Canada: UTC−05; 21:00 on Monday

The time-zone adjustment for a specific location may vary because of daylight saving time. For example New Zealand, which is usually UTC+12, observes a one-hour daylight saving time adjustment during the Southern Hemisphere summer, resulting in a local time of UTC+13.

Time zone conversions

Conversion between time zones obeys the relationship

"time in zone A" − "UTC offset for zone A" = "time in zone B" − "UTC offset for zone B",

in which each side of the equation is equivalent to UTC. (The more familiar term "UTC offset" is used here rather than the term "zone designator" used by the standard.)

The conversion equation can be rearranged to

"time in zone B" = "time in zone A" − "UTC offset for zone A" + "UTC offset for zone B".

For example, what time is it in Los Angeles (UTC offset= −08) when the New York Stock Exchange opens at 09:30 (−05)?

time in Los Angeles = 09:30 − (−05:00) + (−08:00) = 06:30

In Delhi (UTC offset= +5:30), the New York Stock Exchange opens at

time in Delhi = 09:30 − (−05:00) + (+5:30) = 20:00

These calculations become more complicated near a daylight saving boundary (because the UTC offset for zone X is a function of the UTC time).


Enlarge picture
Plaque commemorating the Railway General Time Convention of 1883

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) was established in 1675 when the Royal Observatory was built as an aid to (English) mariners to determine longitude at sea. At the time, each town's local clock in the area was calibrated to its local noon. Therefore, each clock across England had a slightly different time. The first time zone in the world was established by British railway companies on December 1, 1847—with GMT kept by portable chronometers. This quickly became known as Railway Time. About August 23, 1852, time signals were first transmitted by telegraph from the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Even though 98% of Great Britain's public clocks were using GMT by 1855, it was not made Britain's legal time until August 2, 1880. Some old clocks from this period have two minute hands—one for the local time, one for GMT.[2] This only applied to the island of Great Britain, not to the island of Ireland.

On November 2, 1868, the then-British colony of New Zealand officially adopted a standard time to be observed throughout the colony, and was perhaps the first country to do so. It was based on the longitude 172°30′ East of Greenwich, that is 11 hours 30 minutes ahead of GMT. This standard was known as New Zealand Mean Time.

Timekeeping on the American railroads in the mid 19th century was somewhat confused. Each railroad used its own standard time, usually based on the local time of its headquarters or most important terminus, and the railroad's train schedules were published using its own time. Some major railroad junctions served by several different railroads had a separate clock for each railroad, each showing a different time; the main station in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, for example, kept six different times.

Charles F. Dowd proposed a system of one-hour standard time zones for American railroads about 1863, although he published nothing on the matter at that time and did not consult railroad officials until 1869. In 1870, he proposed four ideal time zones (having north–south borders), the first centered on Washington, D.C., but by 1872 the first was centered 75°W of Greenwich, with geographic borders (for example, sections of the Appalachian Mountains). Dowd's system was never accepted by American railroads. Instead, U.S. and Canadian railroads implemented a version proposed by William F. Allen, the editor of the Traveler's Official Railway Guide.[3] The borders of its time zones ran through railroad stations, often in major cities. For example, the border between its Eastern and Central time zones ran through Detroit, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Atlanta, and Charleston. It was inaugurated on Sunday, November 18, 1883, also called "The Day of Two Noons", when each railroad station clock was reset as standard-time noon was reached within each time zone. The zones were named Intercolonial, Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific. Within one year, 85% of all cities with populations over 10,000, about 200 cities, were using standard time.[4] A notable exception was Detroit (which is about half-way between the meridians of eastern time and central time), which kept local time until 1900, then tried Central Standard Time, local mean time, and Eastern Standard Time before a May 1915 ordinance settled on EST and was ratified by popular vote in August 1916. The confusion of times came to an end when Standard zone time was formally adopted by the U.S. Congress on March 19, 1918, in the Standard Time Act.

U.S. Commissioner of Railroads William H. Armstrong gave the following account of the new railroad time system in his Report to the Secretary of the Interior for 1883.

The question of uniform time standards for railways of the United States has long attracted the attention of railway managers, but Mr. W. F. Allen, editor of the Traveler's Official Guide, and secretary of the time conventions, is entitled to the credit of having perfected the admirable system which was adopted by the general time convention of railway managers, held at Chicago, October 11, 1883, and ratified by the southern railway time convention, held at New York, October 17, 1883.

As this is a subject of great interest to the entire country, a brief synopsis of the general principles governing the proposed plan is deemed appropriate in this report.

Under the present system each railway is operated independently on the local time of some principal point or points on said road, but this plan was found to be highly objectionable, owing to the fact that some fifty standards, intersecting and interlacing each other, were in use throughout the country. By the plan which has been adopted this number will be reduced to four, the difference in time being one hour between each, viz, the 75th, 90th, 105th, and 120th degrees of longitude west from Greenwich. The adoption of these standards will not cause a difference of more than thirty minutes from the local time at any point which is now used as a standard. The new arrangement goes into effect November 18, 1883, and all changes of time are to occur at the termini of roads, or at the ends of divisions. The seventy-fifth meridian being almost precisely the central meridian for the system of roads now using standards based upon the time of the Eastern cities, and the ninetieth meridian being equally central for roads now running by the time of Western cities, the time of these meridians has been adopted for the territory which includes 90 per cent. of the whole railway system of the country. Nearly all of the larger cities have abolished local time and adopted that of the nearest standard meridian in use by the railways.[5][6][7]

While the first person to propose a worldwide system of time zones was the Italian mathematician Quirico Filopanti, in his book Miranda! published in 1858, his idea was unknown outside the pages of his book until long after his death, so it did not influence the adoption of time zones during the 19th century. He proposed 24 hourly time zones, which he called "longitudinal days", the first centered on the meridian of Rome. He also proposed a universal time to be used in astronomy and telegraphy.[8][9]

Canadian Sir Sandford Fleming proposed a worldwide system of time zones in 1879. He advocated his system at several international conferences, thus is widely credited with their invention. In 1876, his first proposal was for a global 24-hour clock, conceptually located at the center of the Earth and not linked to any surface meridian. In 1879 he specified that his universal day would begin at the anti-meridian of Greenwich (180th meridian), while conceding that hourly time zones might have some limited local use. He also proposed his system at the International Meridian Conference in October 1884, but it did not adopt his time zones because they were not within its purview. The conference did adopt a universal day of 24 hours beginning at Greenwich midnight, but specified that it "shall not interfere with the use of local or standard time where desirable".

Nevertheless, most major countries had adopted hourly time zones by 1929. Today, all nations use standard time zones for secular purposes, but they do not all apply the concept as originally conceived. Newfoundland, India, Iran, Afghanistan, Venezuela, Burma, the Marquesas, as well as parts of Australia use half-hour deviations from standard time, and some nations, such as Nepal, and some provinces, such as the Chatham Islands, use quarter-hour deviations. Some countries, most notably China and India, use a single time zone, even though the extent of their territory far exceeds 15° of longitude. Before 1949 China used five time zones (see Time in China).

Nautical time zones

A ship within the territorial waters of any nation would use that nation's standard time, but would revert to nautical standard time upon leaving its territorial waters. The captain was permitted to change the ship's clocks at a time of the captain's choice following the ship's entry into another time zone. The captain often chooses midnight.

Skewing of zones

Enlarge picture
Difference between sun time and clock time during daylight saving time:
0h ± 30m
1h ± 30m ahead
2h ± 30m ahead
3h ± 30m ahead

Ideal time zones, such as nautical time zones, are based on the mean solar time of a particular meridian located in the middle of that zone with boundaries located 7.5 degrees east and west of the meridian. In practice, zone boundaries are often drawn much farther to the west with often irregular boundaries, and some locations base their time on meridians located far to the east.

For example, even though the Prime Meridian (0°) passes through Spain and France, they use the mean solar time of 15 degrees east (Central European Time) rather than 0 degrees (Greenwich Mean Time). France previously used GMT, but was switched to CET (Central European Time) during the German occupation of the country during World War II and did not switch back after the war.[citation needed]

There is a tendency to draw time zone boundaries far to the west of their meridians. Many of these locations also use daylight saving time. As a result, in the summer, solar noon in the Spanish town of Muxia occurs on 14:37 (2:37pm) by the clock. This area of Spain never experiences sunset before 18:00 (6pm) local time even in midwinter, despite its lying more than 40 degrees north of the equator. Near the summer solstice, Muxia has sunset times similar to those of Stockholm, which is in the same time zone and 16 degrees further north.

A more extreme example is Nome, Alaska, which is at 165°24′W longitude—just west of center of the idealized Samoa Time Zone (165°W). Nevertheless, Nome observes Alaska Time (135°W) with DST so it is slightly more than two hours ahead of the sun in winter and over three in summer.[13] Kotzebue, Alaska, also near the same meridian but north of the Arctic Circle, has an annual event on 9 August to celebrate two sunsets in the same 24-hour day, one shortly after midnight at the start of the day, and the other shortly before midnight at the end of the day.

Also, China extends as far west as 73°34′E, but all parts of it use UTC+8 (120°E), so solar "noon" can occur as late as 15:00.

Daylight saving time

Enlarge picture
  DST used
  DST no longer used
  DST never used

Additional information

  • France has twelve time zones including those of France, French Guiana and numerous islands, inhabited and uninhabited. Russia has nine time zones (and used to have 11 time zones before March 2010), eight contiguous zones plus Kaliningrad exclave on the Baltic Sea. The United States has ten time zones (nine official plus that for Wake Island and its Antarctic stations; no official time zone is specified for uninhabited Howland Island and Baker Island). Australia has nine time zones (one unofficial and three official on the mainland plus four for its territories and one more for an Antarctic station not included in other time zones). The United Kingdom has eight time zones for itself and its overseas territories. Canada has six official time zones. The Danish Realm has five time zones.
  • In terms of area, China is the largest country with only one time zone (UTC+08). China also has the widest spanning time zone. Before 1949, China was separated into five time zones.
  • Stations in Antarctica generally keep the time of their supply bases, thus both the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (U.S.) and McMurdo Station (U.S.) use New Zealand time (UTC+12 southern winter, UTC+13 southern summer).
  • The 27°N latitude passes back and forth across time zones in South Asia. Pakistan: +05, India +05:30, Nepal +05:45, India (Sikkim) +05:30, China +08:00, Bhutan +06:00, India (Arunachal Pradesh) +05:30, Myanmar +06:30. This switching was more odd in 2002, when Pakistan enabled daylight saving time. Thus from west to east, time zones were: +06:00, +05:30, +05:45, +05:30, +08:00, +06:00, +05:30 and +06:30.
  • Because the earliest and latest time zones are 26 hours apart, any given calendar date exists at some point on the globe for 50 hours. For example, April 11 begins in time zone UTC+14 at 10:00 UTC April 10, and ends in time zone UTC−12 at 12:00 UTC April 12.
  • There are 22 places where three or more time zones meet, for instance at the tri-country border of Finland, Norway and Russia. 28 countries present such triple points, with China being the most present (in 13 of the 22 triple points). Then come India (7), Russia, India and Afghanistan (4).
  • There are 40 time zones. This is due to fractional hour offsets and zones with offsets larger than 12 hours near the International Date Line as well as one unofficial zone in Australia. See the list of time zones.
  • The largest time gap along a political border is the 3.5 hour gap along the border of China (UTC+08) and Afghanistan (UTC+04:30).
  • One of the most unusual time zones is the Australian Central Western Time zone (CWST), which is a small strip of Western Australia from the border of South Australia west to 125.5°E, just before Caiguna. It is 8¾ hours ahead of UTC (UTC+08:45) and covers an area of about 35,000 km2, larger than Belgium, but has a population of about 200. Although unofficial, it is universally respected in the area—without it, the time gap in standard time at 129°E (the WA/SA border) would be 1.5 hours. See Time in Australia.

Internet and computer systems

UTC is often used on the Internet for meetings (e.g. IRC chats, news, shows and so on).[14] For e-mail, the sender time zone is used to calculate the send time, but this time is recalculated by the receiver mail client, and shown according to the receiver time zone.

On websites with mainly domestic audiences local time is often used, sometimes with UTC in brackets: e.g. the international English-language version of CNN includes GMT and Hong Kong Time,[15] whilst the US version shows Eastern Time.[16] US Eastern Time and Pacific Time are also used fairly commonly on many US-based English-language websites with global readership.

The format is based in the W3C Note "datetime".

On the other hand, most modern computer operating systems include information about time zones, including the capability to automatically change the local time when daylight saving starts and finishes (see the article on daylight saving time for more details on this aspect).

This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia® - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the Wikipedia® encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.

Thanks to Encyclopedia The Free Dictionary / Farlex, Inc.